Review Article

Venous Thromboembolism in the Cancer Population: Pathology, Risk, and Prevention

Susan Hawbaker, MSN, APN, ANP-BC, OCN®

From CNS Home Hospice and Palliative Care, Carol Stream, Illinois

The author has no conflicts of interest to disclose.

Correspondence to: Susan Hawbaker, MSN, APN, ANP-BC, OCN®, 1389 Crimson Lane, Yorkville, IL 60560. E-mail: Susan.Hawbaker@gmail.com


J Adv Pract Oncol 2012;3:23–33 | DOI: 10.6004/jadpro.2012.3.1.3 | © 2012 Harborside Press®


  

ABSTRACT

Patients with cancer have an increased risk of developing venous thromboembolism (VTE) and the incidence of these events has been increasing over the past decade. Venous thromboembolic events include both deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. These events contribute to higher morbidity and mortality rates. Understanding the complex pathogenesis of and risk factors for cancer-associated VTE will help guide advanced practitioners to improve outcomes with prophylaxis. The American Society of Clinical Oncology, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network, and the European Society of Medical Oncology have utilized this information and developed evidence-based guidelines for prophylactic management for those who are at highest risk of developing cancer-associated VTE. This review will discuss the impact of cancer-associated VTE as well as its underlying pathogenesis, risk factors, and current recommendations for prophylaxis.




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