Review Article

The Emerging Role of Molecular Testing in Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer

Patrick J. Kiel,(1),(2) PharmD, BCPS, BCOP, Liang Cheng,(1) MD, Anna Livers-Ertel,(3) ANP-BC, MSN, OCN®, and Gregory Durm,(2) MD

(1)Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana; (2)Indiana University Simon Cancer Center—IU Health, Indianapolis, Indiana; (3)Franciscan Health Cancer Center, Indianapolis, Indiana

Authors’ disclosures of potential conflicts of interest are found at the end of this article.

Patrick J. Kiel, PharmD, BCPS, BCOP, Indiana University Simon Cancer Center—IU Health, 535 Barnhill Drive, Indianapolis IN 46202. E-mail:

J Adv Pract Oncol 2017;8:7–27 | | © 2017 Harborside Press®



In recent years, the role of molecular testing in non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has rapidly grown. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved several new medications to treat patients with genetic alterations over the past 10 years, and the development of improved technology has made sequencing more affordable, efficient, and convenient. With these advances, the popularity of genomic sequencing will continue to rise rapidly, further affecting routine clinical practice and treatment recommendations. Therefore, it is increasingly important for advanced practitioners treating patients with NSCLC to understand how these genomic markers are used in practice, comprehend the updated treatment guidelines to be able to identify which patients to test with which type of test and at what point in their treatment, and have a firm grasp of where the world of molecular testing is headed. 

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