Review Article

Predictive and Prognostic Biomarkers and Related Therapies in Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer

Samantha Schmidt, PharmD, and Grashma Vadakkel, PharmD(c)

Lexington Medical Center, West Columbia, South Carolina, and University of South Florida College of Pharmacy, Tampa, Florida

Authors’ disclosures of potential conflicts of interest are found at the end of this article.

Samantha Schmidt, PharmD, Lexington Medical Center, 2720 Sunset Boulevard, West Columbia, SC 29169. E-mail:

J Adv Pract Oncol 2017;8:35–42 | | © 2017 Harborside Press®



Non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the leading form of lung carcinoma in the United States. Systemic chemotherapy has remained the mainstay of treatment; however, advances in the identification of driver mutations have allowed the development of therapies that specifically target precise cell processes. These biomarkers have predictive value in determining the likelihood a patient will respond to a certain therapy and prognostic value in determining patient survival independent of therapy received. Common driver mutations found in NSCLC that are reviewed in this article include epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), ROS1, and Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene (KRAS). This article also discusses targeted therapies available for each driver mutation including afatinib, alectinib, brigatinib, ceritinib, crizotinib, erlotinib, gefitinib, and osimertinib. Upcoming targeted therapies that are currently undergoing clinical trials are explored as well.

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