Outcome of Allogeneic Transplantation in Newly Diagnosed and Relapsed/Refractory Multiple Myeloma: Long-Term Follow-Up in a Single Institution

Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) has the potential to induce long-term remission in multiple myeloma (MM), but the role of allo-SCT in MM is controversial due to the high rate of treatment-related mortality (TRM). However, although proteasome inhibitors and immunomodulatory drugs have improved the outcome of MM patients, high-risk patients still have a very poor prognosis. This indicates the need for new treatment strategies and identification of patients who might benefit from allo-SCT. We therefore analyzed the outcome of one hundred and forty-seven MM patients who received an allo-SCT at our institution (58 in first line, 89 in relapsed/refractory setting) after a median follow up of 88.8 months. For the first line setting, median PFS and OS were remarkably good, with a CR rate of 48.3%, median PFS of 30.2 months and 10-year OS of 51%. We found no difference in outcome for patients with high-risk metaphase cytogenetics or FISH del(13q14), but efficacy in current standard high-risk patients could not be determined. The outcome in the relapsed/refractory setting was poor, especially in the subgroup of patients relapsing within 18 months after auto-SCT. Therefore, if applied at all in these patients, improvement of allo-SCT is needed, focusing on reduction of TRM and more effective immunotherapy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

 European Journal of Haematology